2010-5-11 9:17:21 天天向上
As the twentieth century began, the importance of formal education in the United States increased The frontier had mostly disappeared and by 1910 most Americans lived in towns and cities. Industrialization and the bureaucratization of economic line life combined with a new emphasis upon credentials and expertise to make schooling
(5) increasingly important for economic and social mobility. Increasingly, too, schools were viewed as the most important means of integrating immigrants into American society.
The arrival of a great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants at the turn of the century coincided with and contributed to an enormous expansion of formal
(10) schooling. By 1920 schooling to age fourteen or beyond was compulsory in most states, and the school year was greatly lengthened. Kindergartens, vacation schools, extracurricular activities, and vocational education and counseling extended the influence of public schools over the lives of students, many of whom in the larger
industrial cities were the children of immigrants. Classes for adult immigrants were
(15) sponsored by public schools, corporations, unions, churches, settlement houses, and other agencies.Reformers early in the twentieth century suggested that education programs should