2011-9-30 18:19:08 Lucy
1 the contact between coach and employee not solving all difficulties at work
2 the discussion of how certain situations could be better handled if they occur again
3 a coach encouraging an employee to apply what has been taught to routine work situations
4 coaching providing new interest to individuals who are unhappy in their current positions
5 coaching providing a supportive environment to discuss performance
6 employees being asked to analyse themselves and practise greater self-awareness
7 coaching enabling a company to respond rapidly to a lack of expertise in a certain area
Coaching involves two or more people sitting down together to talk through issues that have come up recently at work, and analysing how they were managed and how they might be dealt with more effectively on subsequent occasions. Coaching thus transfers skills and information from one person to another in an on-the-job situation so that the work experience of the coach is used to advise and guide the individual being coached. It also allows successes and failures to be evaluated in a non-threatening atmosphere.
Coaching means influencing the learner’s personal development, for example his or her confidence and ambition. It can take place any time during an individual’s career. Coaching is intended to assist individuals to function more effectively, and it is a powerful learning model. It begins where skills-based training ends, and helps individuals to use formally learnt knowledge in day-to-day work and management situations. Individuals being coached are in a demanding situation with their coach, which requires them to consider their own behaviour and question their reasons for doing things.
The coach professionally assists the career development of another individual, outside the normal manager/subordinate relationship. In theory, the coaching relationship should provide answers to every problem, but in practice it falls short of this. However, it can provide a space for discussion and feedback on topics such as people management and skills, behaviour patterns, confidence-building and time management. Through coaching, an organisation can meet skills shortages, discuss targets and indicate how employees should deal with challenging situations, all at short notice.
Effective coaches are usually those who get satisfaction from the success of others and who give time to the coaching role. Giving people coaching responsibilities can support their development, either by encouraging management potential through small-scale one-to-one assignments, or by providing added job satisfaction to managers who feel they are stuck in their present jobs. A coach is also a confidential adviser, accustomed to developing positive and effective approaches to complex management, organisational and change problems.
第一题，教练和员工之间的接触不能解决工作中的所有困难。答案是C段的这么一句：In theory, the coaching relationship should provide answers to every problem, but in practice it falls short of this.理论上，培训可以提供所有问题的答案。但是实践中达不到这样。Fall short of是关键词。
第二题，讨论某些情况如果再度出现的话怎么样可以处理的更好。答案是A段的这么一句：analysing how they were managed and how they might be dealt with more effectively on subsequent occasions.分析应该如何进行处理并且在接下来的情况下怎样可以处理的更有效。这里的dealt with more effectively对应于题干中的better handled，on subsequent occasions.也就是occur again。
第三题，教练鼓励员工将所学应用到日常的工作中。答案是B段的这么一句：helps individuals to use formally learnt knowledge in day-to-day work and management situations.帮助个人将学到的正式知识用在日常工作和管理情况下。这里的day-to-day work and management situations就是题干中的routine work situations，what has been taught也就是formally learnt knowledge。
第四题，培训为在现有岗位上不高兴的个人提供了新的兴趣。答案是D段的这么一句：providing added job satisfaction to managers who feel they are stuck in their present jobs。对感觉自己在现有岗位上受困的经理们提供附加的工作满足感。这里的stuck in their present jobs就是题干中的unhappy in their current position，added job satisfaction可以对应于题干中的new interest。
第五题，培训提供了一个有力的、支持性的讨论工作表现的环境。答案是A段的：It also allows successes and failures to be evaluated in a non-threatening atmosphere.它允许成功和失败在一个没有威胁的气氛下被评估。成功和失败也就是performance，supportive environment可以对应于non-threatening atmosphere。
第六题，员工被要求分析他们自己并且培养出更强的自知。有必要理解下self-awareness的含义，不能简单的从中文理解成自我意识，看英文解释：knowledge and understanding of yourself。所以答案是B段的这么一句：requires them to consider their own behaviour and
question their reasons for doing things.要求他们考虑自己的行为并且思考这么做的理由。consider their own behaviour可以对应于题干中的analyse themselves，思考这么做的理由也是为了进一步增进对自己的认识。
第七题，培训可以使得公司对某个领域的技术缺失迅速做出反应。答案是C段的最后一句：indicate how employees should deal with challenging situations, all at short notice.指出员工怎样处理有挑战性的情况，在短时间内。At short notice是一接到通知就，短时间内的意思,可以对应这一题的respond rapidly，challenging situations可以指代题干中的a lack of expertise in a certain area.